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Glossary

Success for Every Student: A Guide to Teaching and Learning, Pollnow and Tkatchov 2017

Accountability: Responsibility to someone or for some activity.

Accommodation: A change in the way tasks are presented that let children with a disability complete the same assignments as other children. Accommodations do not alter the content of assignments, give students an unfair advantage or in the case of assessments, or change what a test measures.

Accuracy: The ability to recognize words when they are read.

Achievement Gap: The inequality on a number of educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

Active Engagement: Instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing.

Active Learning: anything course-related that all students in a class session are called upon to do other than simply watching, listening and taking notes.

Administrator: A person in a level of administration, including principals, superintendents, etc.

Assessment: Methods used to judge the performance of an individual, group or organization.

Assistive Technology Device: Any item that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.

Automaticity: Acting or done without volition or conscious control; involuntary.

Balanced Assessment System: A variety of assessments are used, for a variety of purposes and communication about results facilitates student involvement and ownership of learning. 

Baseline Data: Data collected to establish and understand the existing conditions before any kind of experimental manipulation begins.

Benchmark: A standard for judging a performance.

Check for Understanding: When a teacher gauges what students are getting and what they need to work on more.

Choral Reading: The entire class is reading the same thing at the same time.

Classroom Management: The provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur.

Cloze Reading: The teacher reads the passage, but occasionally stops on a word and the class is expected to say that word out loud.

Cognitive: A term which refers to the ability or capacity to think and understand.

Common Formative Assessment: An assessment typically created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or course.  Common formative assessments are frequently administered throughout the year to identify (1) individual students who need additional time and support for learning, (2) the teaching strategies most effective in helping students acquire the intended knowledge and skills, (3) program concerns – areas in which students generally are having difficulty achieving the intended standard – and (4) improvement goals for individual teachers and the team.”  

Criteria: A principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided.

Criterion-referenced Grading:  Grading in which a student gets scored based on what criteria they complete. 

Curriculum: A blend of educational strategies, course content, learning outcomes, educational experiences, assessment, the educational environment and the individual students’ learning style, personal timetable and program of work.

Curriculum Alignment: Assuring that the material taught in the school matches the standards and assessments set by the state or district for specific grade levels.

Curriculum Map: A spatial representation of the different components of the curriculum so that the whole picture and the relationships and connections between their components are easily seen.

Curriculum Mapping: The process where each teacher records the content, that is actually taught, how long it is taught and how they are assessed and aligned to academic standards.

Data: Information, especially information organized for analysis or used to reason or make decisions.

Decoding:  The reader is able to understand the sounds that match the symbols and can sound out a word.

Diagnostic Assessment: An assessment that occurs at the beginning of the teaching/learning cycle. This type of assessment will provide the teacher with an understanding of the prior knowledge and skills a student brings to a unit, as well as the strengths and specific learning needs of an individual or groups of students in relation to the expectations that will be taught.  Diagnostic assessment is conducted prior to and during teaching and learning to determine:

●       what existing knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, and/or needs the student has 

●       the range of individual differences 

●       what program plans and/or modifications are required to meet the needs of individuals or groups of students 

Differential Grading: When a student in a course receives inconsistent grades on the same content and curriculum across teachers, schools, or districts.

Differentiation of Instruction: Instructional approaches varied and adapted in relation to individual and diverse students.

Direct Instruction: The explicit teaching of a skill-set using teacher-led instruction or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning.

Dyslexia: A type of specific learning disability that affects the processing of language in reading, writing, spelling and speaking, usually by reading letters backwards.

Evaluation: The process of examining a subject and rating it based on its important features.

Fluency: To do something accurately and fluidly. 

Formative Assessment or Assessment for Learning (AfL), is a process that takes place in the classroom instruction as students and teachers are intentionally moving towards a learning goal.  It is the real-time adjustments or processes a teacher makes while instructing a class to ensure that the students are learning the content, keeping pace, and the learning progresses (Heritage, 2010). It is evaluation of student learning that aids understanding and development of knowledge, skills and abilities without passing any final judgment (via recorded grade) on the level of learning.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): Special education and related services that are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; meet the standards of the SEA, including the requirements of this part; include an appropriate preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education in the State involved; and are provided in conformity with an IEP that meets the legal requirements.

Grade Inflation: When students are given higher grades that they actually should.

Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum:  A plan of what the teacher will teach and what the students will learn.  The learning is based on an academic standard, can be taught in the time provided, and has explicit and specific objectives for every subject area, grade level, and course.  

Individualized Education Program (IEP): A written educational plan that is developed by a team of professionals, educators, and parents concerned with the education of a special needs person. 

Intervention:  A program or strategy to assist a student in an area of need.

Imagery: Visually descriptive.

Knowledge: A collection of facts and information acquired through experience or education or (more generally) the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.

Modification: An adjustment in the curriculum, standards, test preparation, expectation, student response and/or other feature which provides access for a student with a disability to participate in class, assignment, or test. It fundamentally alters the standard or expectation compared to what other students are expected to do.

Needs Assessment: A systematic study that incorporates data and opinions from varied sources in order to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and services.

Norm-referenced Grading: A type of grading that compares a student’s performance to the performance of other students within the class.

Outcomes: The intended results of schooling. What students are supposed to know and be able to do.

Pedagogy: The art and language of teaching.

Portfolio: A collection of student work chosen to represent and document a student’s progress over a period of time.

Research-based: The use of rigorous, systematic, and objective methodologies to obtain reliable and valid knowledge.

Results: A consequence, effect, or outcome of something

Rubric: An explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance.

Scaffold: Any of or combination of cognitive and metacognitive tools or strategies used in instruction either by human or computer-based tutors to help learners gain an understanding that would not be possible by the learner alone

School Climate: Multidimensional aspects of a school encompassing both characteristics of the school and perceptions of the school as a place to work and learn.

Sequence of the Curriculum: The order of items taught.

Self-efficacy: A person has confidence that they will be successful.

Silent Reading: When the each student reads the passage to themselves silently.

Skill: The ability to do something.

Special Education: Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.

Standards: A required or agreed level of quality or attainment; the knowledge or skill that the student needs to learn.

Summative Assessment: Assessed work which contributes to the final outcome of a student’s grade, such as examinations, essays, dissertations or presentations.

Symbolic Interactions: The action and reaction toward students based on the assumptions about the individual learner’s capabilities.  

Time on Task: The percentage of time students are engaged in learning.

Wait Time: The time given for students to recall information.

Validity: How well a test measures what it is intended to measure. 


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